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« Erindi dr. Margot Käßmann á Skálholtshátíð 2017 · Heim ·

Erindi Michael Bünker

Kristján Valur @ 19.38 27/9/18

Dr. Michael Bünker

General Secretary of CPCE

Theological Foundations of the Communion of Protestant Churches in Europe

Skalholt/Iceland, Tuesday 22 August 2017

Dear brothers and sisters,

First of all, I want to thank you for inviting me to come to this wonderful place and for giving me the opportunity to give you an insight into and some further information about the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe. The origin of the concept of “church communion” lies in the German term “Kirchengemeinschaft”, which was already established in German-speaking ecclesiology and is therefore used in the Leuenberg Agreement. One has to take account of the fact that the German language only has the expression Gemeinschaft to translate communio as well as communitas. “Kirchengemeinschaft” emphasises communio and the ecclesial quality expressed this way. The English language distinguishes between fellowship, community and (ecclesial or church) communion, the French between communauté and communion (ecclésiale). From the Leuenberg Agreement[1] onwards, the term “church fellowship” was used in the texts of the CPCE as the equivalent of “Kirchengemeinschaft”. In order to avoid misunderstandings and to bring it into line with international ecumenical usage, the term “church communion” should be favoured in future.

I am the Bishop of the Lutheran Church in Austria. As in all former Habsburg countries, the church was not allowed to call itself Lutheran, but had to use the abbreviation “A.B.”, which refers to the Augsburg Confession. The same applies to the Reformed Church, which is named after the Helvetic Confession and abbreviated in German as “H.B.”. These two traditions of the Reformation have remained closely linked to one another since the early 16th century, right up to the present day. Both churches are united in what we call the “Evangelische Kirche A. und H.B.” but also remain autonomous confessional churches. So Leuenberg was a reality in Austria, as in other middle and eastern European countries, long before the LA was drawn up and signed.

Both in Iceland and in Austria, we can look back gratefully to the Reformation era. The translation of the Bible into our mother languages made it possible for every man and woman to read the Holy Scriptures and thus realise what Martin Luther intended with the priesthood of all believers or all those baptised. So my fathers and mothers in the Church used Luther’s and Zwingli’s translations into German; our neighbours in Hungary used the translation by Janos Sylvester; and you here in Iceland look back to the first Lutheran Bishop, Gizur Einarsson, who began his translation in a stable after returning home from Wittenberg. Exactly one month ago, you were able to celebrate the anniversary of the Reformation, as it is being celebrated in nearly every country throughout Europe. This Reformation experience and the gift of the Bible in our own language link us across all borders.

The process leading up to the LA in 1973 started in 1955. At the initiative of the WCC’s Commission on Faith and Order, a dialogue began between the Lutheran and Reformed churches in Europe. The aim was to overcome the divisions and mutual condemnations from the 16th century. The authors of the agreement were convinced that they had fulfilled their task when they finished the text of the agreement and submitted it to the churches. They did not anticipate that the church fellowship would grow and develop into a community and a communion, as we understand it today. So the LA proved both its potential for the future and its ongoing realisation step by step. Leuenberg is still a process more than an end result.

By now, more than 100 churches have signed the LA, but the number of member churches in the community is somewhat lower. The reason for this is that some churches used the agreement for building a church union, for example the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN), the French churches and several of the German churches. On the other hand, we also have associated members, which are churches that until now have not signed the agreement but participate in the life of the community. These are the Svenska Kyrkan and the Finnish Lutheran Church – and, from a certain perspective, also your church here in Iceland.

So I want to talk about church communion as an experience of church unity. First, I will look at the foundations, especially the LA and also the document “The Church of Jesus Christ” from the year 1994.[2] Then I will try to show how this communion is realised in church life. But first, let us consider the foundations:

The Leuenberg Agreement (1973)[3]

“With the Leuenberg Agreement, church communion became a leading concept in the ecclesiological and ecumenical self-understanding of the Protestant churches in Europe.” [4]

“The Protestant churches of different confessional positions which are signatories to the Agreement have established ‘on the basis of their doctrinal discussions, a common understanding of the Gospel’, which is set out in the Agreement (LA 1). This has made it possible for them ‘to declare and to realise church fellowship’ (ibid.).”[5]

“The Agreement follows the criteria for church unity stated in the Augsburg Confession, VII. ‘Fellowship in Word and Sacrament’ (LA 29) presupposes agreement in the understanding of the Gospel and so clarification of what the churches can say together on Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Diversity in liturgy and forms of church government are no obstacle to unity, if this diversity stands the test of the common understanding of the Gospel.”[6]

“The declaration of church communion adopted by churches, in their assent to the Agreement, consists of the following elements:

‘a) that (the churches) are one in understanding the Gospel as set out in parts II and III (of the Agreement);

b) that in accordance with this common understanding of the Gospel the doctrinal condemnations expressed in the confessional documents no longer apply to the contemporary doctrinal position of the assenting churches;

c) that the churches accord each other table and pulpit fellowship; this includes the mutual recognition of ordination and the freedom to provide for intercelebration.

With these statements church fellowship is declared. The divisions which have barred the way to this fellowship since the sixteenth century are removed. The participating churches are convinced that together they participate in the one Church of Jesus Christ and that the Lord frees them for and calls them to common service.’ (LA 31-34).

In this way the recognition of ministries is grounded in the common understanding of Word and Sacrament and follows from it.”[7]

In the Gospel of Jesus Christ, God grants his unconditional grace and offers righteousness through faith alone. In this way he grants new communion with himself and frees humanity from a situation of alienation and opposition to God into a new life and “sets in the midst of the world the beginnings of a new humanity.”[8]

In the Reformation understanding of the Gospel as justification through faith alone without works, the reconciling and liberating power of the Gospel received new recognition. The lasting agreement of the Reformers, endorsed by the Leuenberg Agreement and forming the starting-point for surmounting church-dividing doctrinal differences between the churches of the Reformation, consists in this.

Through the right preaching of the Gospel and the due celebration of the sacraments, humanity is brought into communion with Christ and gathered in the church as a communion of the saints/believers. The New Testament speaks here of the koinonia of believers, which is simultaneously koinonia with their Lord (1 Cor. 10:6f; cf. Acts 2:42). Only in the communion of these gifts of salvation bestowed in Christ is the church the church of Jesus Christ. Accordingly LA 2, picking up on CA VII, stresses that an agreement in the understanding of the gospel and the celebration of the sacraments is the necessary but also sufficient condition for the unity of the church.

The biblical term koinonia (communion, fellowship) has a central  significance in the ecumenical quest for a common understanding of the life and unity of the church.[9]

The church as the body of Christ is a communion (communio) both in and through its participation in the gifts of salvation, baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Through these, it is not just the individual who gains communion with God in Christ. On the contrary, through the gifts of salvation, the participants are at the same time bound with one another in communion. By their faith in Christ, the believers do not just believe that Christ grants communion to each of them individually; they know at the same time that the communion is also valid for all others, for all of whom Christ died. Through their faith in Christ, others thereby become neighbours.

The agreement in the understanding of the Gospel is, according to Protestant understanding, constitutive both of the communion of the Church and also of the communion of the churches (cf. LA 6-12). According to the insight held by the Reformers, justification occurs sola gratia, sola fide, solo Christo and solo verbo. Based on the recognition of the common understanding of the Gospel, church-dividing doctrinal differences in the understanding of the sacraments, in Christology and in the doctrine of predestination are overcome in the consensus statements contained in the Leuenberg Agreement (cf. LA 13-28). The basic meaning of the doctrine of justification is guaranteed herein.

The Church of Jesus Christ (1994)[10]

“With the study document The Church of Jesus Christ (CJC; Leuenberg Documents 1, [1995] 42012), the General Assembly of the Leuenberg Church Fellowship in 1994 in Vienna set out the basic tenets of the Protestant understanding of the church and explained the ecclesiological principles which guide the signatory churches in ecumenical dialogue.”[11]

“The study document distinguishes between the foundation, shape and mission of the church. ‘The foundation of the church is God’s action in Jesus Christ to save humankind. In this fundamental action God himself is the subject, and consequently the church is an object of faith. Since the church is a community of believers, the shape of the church has taken various historical forms. The one church of faith (singular) is present in a hidden manner in churches (plural) shaped in different ways. The mission of the church is its task to witness to all humankind, in word and deed, to the Gospel of the coming of the Kingdom of God’ (CJC Introduction, 4).”[12]

“The event that lets the church be church, and which precedes all human action and reaction, is the justifying, liberating act of God, which is proclaimed in the preaching of the Gospel and granted in the sacraments. As witness to the Gospel in the world, the Church is called to be ‘an instrument of God for the actualisation of God’s universal will to salvation’ (CJC 3.2). In this function it should not seek to usurp the place of Jesus Christ: ‘It will be faithful to this call, if it remains in Christ, the sole infallible instrument of salvation’ (CJC 3.2).”[13]

“The one, catholic, holy and apostolic church exists in the Church wherever Word and Sacrament are truly celebrated. Wherever this happens, different churches recognise one another mutually as the Church of Jesus Christ and cannot deny one another their existence as church. Understood in this way, the diversity of the churches is an enrichment.”[14]

“According to the Leuenberg Agreement, the declaration of church communion arises out of agreement in the understanding of the Gospel and the administration of the sacraments in accordance with the Lord’s commands. The realisation of church communion is not, however, dependent on a central model of structural unity. The churches seek to conform to the standard of unity that can forever be experienced as God’s gift to the churches, in that they know themselves to be supported in common by God’s free grace, and just for that reason enquire anew again and again after their common understanding of the Gospel (cf. LA 38). They become one in that Christ takes shape in them and among them, and is able to be effective in shaping them.”[15]

“The Leuenberg Agreement is a declaration by churches of the Reformation in Europe. It has become an exemplary model for the declaration and realisation of church communion in other regions of the world (cf. also CJC III.3.1). Some churches have reached agreements comparable to the Leuenberg Agreement, for instance in 1998 the Lutheran, Reformed and United churches in the USA with the Formula of Agreement and in 2006 the Lutheran and Reformed Churches in the Near East with the Amman Statement.”[16]

Church communion realised in life[17]

“With the declaration of church communion comes the task of realising church communion. This happens ‘in the life of the churches and congregations’: ‘Believing in the unifying power of the Holy Spirit, they bear their witness and perform their service together, and strive to deepen and strengthen the fellowship they have found together’ (LA 35). Thus common witness to the Gospel and common service arising from the gospel become crucial features of church communion as it is practised.”[18]

“At the same time, continuing theological work in doctrinal discussions (and joint theological, ethical and liturgical projects) is a crucial element in practical church communion for the CPCE churches. On this matter, LA 38 expresses the view that ‘the common understanding of the Gospel on which the church fellowship is based must be further deepened, examined in the light of the witness of Holy Scripture, and continually made relevant to a contemporary context.’”[19]

“Church communion looks beyond itself; its participating churches act ‘as part of their responsibility to promote the ecumenical fellowship of all Christian churches’ (LA 46) in the hope that ‘the church fellowship will provide a fresh stimulus to encounter and collaboration with churches of other confessions’(LA 49).”[20]

In the CPCE, church communion is to be experienced as a communion in worship:[21]

“Church communion grows out of the encounter between the witness of the Gospel and human beings. For that reason, it comes to expression most profoundly in the common celebration of worship. Thus in the CPCE, Lutheran, Reformed, Methodist and United [churches] are joined with one another in worship, they have fellowship at the Lord’s Table, and their ministers exchange pulpits. The CPCE as a communion reconciled in Christ has lived from the outset in pulpit and table fellowship.”[22]

“The maintenance and fostering of a common worship life in liturgy and hymnody is part of table and pulpit fellowship. In the past few years, numerous such projects have been developed: the introduction of a Leuenberg Sunday, the work on liturgical material for shared services of worship, the development and introduction of the CPCE songbook Colours of Grace (2007), the interlinking of the liturgical work through the institution of a much-used internet portal on liturgy and through consultations on worship.”[23]

In the CPCE, church communion is to be experienced as a communion in doctrine:[24]

“Church communion is deepened by theological teaching and learning together. The Leuenberg Agreement commits the signatory churches to further theological work; in general, on the deepening, examination and constant updating of the common understanding of the Gospel in the light of the witness of Holy Scripture (cf. LA 38); and in particular, through doctrinal discussions or through theological work on the doctrinal differences ‘[…] that persist within the participating churches and between them without being grounds for division’ (LA 39).”[25]

“To a considerable extent, a path and profile for church communion have been shaped by doctrinal discussions. They determine the rhythm of work between the general assemblies. Their results, compiled by authorised project and working groups, are presented to the member churches for their comments prior to any resolution at the General Assembly. The remarks of member churches feed into the final shape of the text. In this way, a higher level of participation and a broad reception have been achieved.”[26]

“Past doctrinal discussions have considered the themes which in LA 39 were identified for further work: the relationship of the two kingdoms doctrine to the doctrine of the sovereignty of Jesus Christ (1975-1981), the doctrine of Baptism and Communion (1981-1987), Ministry and Ordination (1976-1987, 2006-2012, with the explicit inclusion of episcope), Law and Gospel (1994-2001), Scripture and Creed (2006-2012). In addition, studies have been produced whose composition has arisen from the life of the church communion, such as the ecclesiological study The Church of Jesus Christ (1987-1994), and the studies which built on it: Church and Israel (1994-2001), The Shape and Shaping of Protestant Churches in Europe (2001-2006) and Evangelising: Protestant Perspectives for the Churches in Europe (2001-2006). These and numerous other theological projects, such as The Christian Witness to Freedom (1987-1994), for example, make clear the importance of theological work for the deepening of living church fellowship.”[27]

In the CPCE, church communion is to be experienced as a communion expressed in growing formal structures:[28]

“Church communion is dependent on reliable forms of communication and organisation. In the 1990s, it became increasingly clear that with the institutional weakness of the Leuenberg Fellowship, which had been deliberately intended at first, problems had surfaced for which an appropriate solution had to be found. Beyond the doctrinal discussions, areas of work were to be opened up which would also make stronger institutional structures necessary. These should take into account the developing shape of the communion in worship, in doctrine and in witness and service.”[29]

“The goal of a ‘further development of the structural and juridical shape of the CPCE’ and the ‘raising of the transparency and efficiency of its decision-making’ called for a series of measures which were proposed by the 2006 General Assembly in Budapest (cf. Final Report ch. 4) and put into effect with the preparation and holding of the General Assembly in Florence (2012). Clearer regulations were introduced for sending and mandating delegates and for a more binding structure for the participation of the churches. In Budapest, a statute was adopted through which the communion was given the character of a separate juridical entity. The Executive Committee in 2006 became a Council, whose Presidium of three people represents the CPCE externally.”[30]

“Advisory groups were called into being, to support the Council and the Presidium with their specialised competence and prepare opinion papers on current problems: the expert group on ethics (from 2007) and the expert group on ecumenism (from 2009).

From 2007, members of the younger generation were more deeply involved in the work of the CPCE.”[31]

“From the beginning, the regional groups have seen themselves as having special responsibility for witness and service and have promoted the regional interlinking of the Leuenberg Church Fellowship in exemplary fashion. In this way, cross-border forums and consultations on theology, social ethics and diaconal work have emerged. These have proved themselves to be an important nucleus for the growing together and intensification of church communion in particular European regions.”[32]

“With the document Training for the Ordained Ministry in the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe (2012), the CPCE churches set out their common understanding of good theological training and developed a concept of training for churches, as well as university faculties and theological colleges, to use as guidelines, so as to make progress with the exchange of ministers in the CPCE — another way of deepening their togetherness and strengthening the church communion.”[33]

In the CPCE, church communion is to be experienced as a communion of witness and service in contemporary Europe:[34]

“The Agreement is an important statement of the unanimous testimony of the Gospel. From that grows the liberation of the churches and their common commitment to service. Service is regarded as ‘service of love … which focuses on human distress and seeks to remove the causes of that distress. The struggle for justice and peace in the world increasingly requires that the churches accept a common responsibility’ (cf. LA 36). Up to the fall of the Iron Curtain, the Leuenberg Church Fellowship, as it was then called, was experienced as a communion in which the opposed systems of a divided Europe could lose their significance of dividing people, and in which solidarity in the Gospel could be lived out across borders.”[35]

“In the course of the 1990s, the pan-European dimension and the task of becoming visible at a European level became increasingly significant. The new political and social fields of action which opened up following the surmounting of the division of Europe made Europe and European questions a central theme. The European Protestant Assembly in Budapest (1992) called on the Protestant churches in Europe to ‘fulfil together their responsibility for the future of Europe’ and in so doing drew attention particularly to the Leuenberg Church Fellowship. The demand of the General Assembly in Belfast (2001) to let ‘the voice of the Protestant Churches in Europe become more audible’ set the agenda. This demand has from then on governed the agenda of the Leuenberg Church Fellowship.”[36]

“Again and again in the past few years, the CPCE has expressed an opinion on developments in Europe and its current problems, with, for instance, the statement from the Presidium [entitled] The crisis ahead to the EU summit in 2011 in Brussels, the statement from the [General] Assembly in 2012 on the current situation in Europe with the acute problems caused by the crisis in the financial system, the economy and government debts, and in 2014 with a statement on the European elections. The CPCE churches consciously participate in the socio-ethical questions which preoccupy Europe, for example with guidance on end-of-life decisions and care for the dying [in] A time to live, and a time to die (2011).”[37] The CPCE recently published a guide on issues in reproductive medicine (2017).

Church communion and ecumenism[38]

“Ecumenical commitment is inseparable from church communion. In declaring and realising church communion amongst themselves, the churches signatory to the Agreement ‘do so as part of their responsibility to promote the ecumenical fellowship of all Christian churches. They regard such a fellowship of churches in the region of Europe as a contribution to this end’ (LA 46f.).”[39]

“In connection with the twentieth anniversary of the adoption of the Leuenberg Agreement, other Protestant churches were also invited to sign the Agreement. In 1993, the Unitas Fratrum in the continent of Europe and the Czechoslovak Hussite Church joined the Church Fellowship. Of the Lutheran churches of Scandinavia who had already been involved in the work from the beginning, the Agreement was signed in 1999 by the Church of Norway and in 2001 by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark. The Church of Norway particularly underlined the fact that [it was] led to this step by the ecclesiological statement in the study The Church of Jesus Christ. In 1997, the Methodist churches in Europe joined through a statement annexed to the Agreement.”[40]

“[On] other continents too, Lutheran and Reformed [churches] came to make declarations of church communion. They took this step [with express reference] to the Leuenberg Agreement. The Formula of Agreement and the Amman Declaration (see above §17), as statements of full mutual recognition, prove the significance of this model of unity beyond the European region. Previously, churches of the La Plata states in Latin America had signed the Leuenberg Agreement. In addition, the worldwide international Lutheran-Reformed dialogue refers expressly to the church communion originating with the Leuenberg Agreement. The first Budapest Report (1988) recommends all churches examine historic condemnations in the light of their significance today, to declare church communion in Word and Sacrament and to follow a common course of witness and service. The most recent report of this dialogue, Communion: On Being the Church (2014), deepens the common understanding of the Church. Here, too, the lines of connection with The Church of Jesus Christ should not be overlooked.”[41]

“In Europe as well as in North America and Australia, there have been in recent years statements of church fellowship with Anglican churches. The Meissen Agreement (1991) and the Reuilly Common Statement (2001) declare church fellowship between Lutheran, Reformed and United churches which have signed the Leuenberg Agreement, and, respectively, the Church of England and the Anglican churches of Britain and Ireland. The understanding of unity upon which these are based and the model of unity which arises from it correspond to the Leuenberg approach. Even though this does not result in a common office of bishop, the diverse ministries of the churches are mutually recognised as a consequence of the declared fellowship in Word and Sacrament. The dialogue between Lutherans and Anglicans resulted in 1994 in the Porvoo Agreement between the British Anglican churches and the Scandinavian and Baltic Lutheran churches, amongst them churches of the Leuenberg Church Fellowship. Although these, in distinction from the Leuenberg Agreement, took the step to a common exercise of the episcopal office and so to a more visible unity, here also the model of unity and its shaping is closely related to that which was realised in the Leuenberg Church Fellowship. Similar factors hold good for the Lutheran-Anglican statements which in other continents follow the Porvoo model, such as the statement Called to Common Mission between the Lutheran and Episcopal churches in the USA (1999), the Waterloo Statement between the corresponding churches in Canada (2001) and the Australian process A Common Ground.”[42]

“There have been clear rapprochements with other European churches that relate to the Reformation. The dialogue that began in 1993 with the European Baptist Federation led in 2005 to a conclusion which shows considerable steps forward in the understanding of Baptism and Church. In 2010, an agreement to cooperate was signed which provided for the extension of contacts made already and engagement in mutual work.”[43]

“The relationship with other Christian confessions has also been stimulated. With the study The Church of Jesus Christ, impetus was given to new ecumenical conversations. These are dedicated primarily to ecclesiology. From 2002 to 2008, a relevant dialogue with the Orthodox churches was conducted in the CEC. [This] led to the recommendation of agreements on the mutual recognition of Baptism. In 2013, official conversations got under way with representatives of the Roman Catholic Church on questions of the understanding of church and church communion. These developments show that the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe, based on the Leuenberg Agreement, is [today] perceived as an independent ecumenical partner.”[44]

Conclusion[45]

“Over the past two decades, the concept of church communion, central to the Leuenberg Agreement, has received an increasing amount of attention. The interest in a deeper and more extensive clarification of what is being realised and experienced as church communion has conspicuously increased. The communion in which the member churches of the CPCE know themselves bound together and in which they perceive themselves as church inspires a growing sense of communion in the living out of church life and in witness and service in the world. In mutually recognising one another as church and declaring church fellowship with one another in the Leuenberg Agreement, the member churches of the CPCE have committed themselves to clear all that out of the way which might obscure the practical testimony to the unity of the church given in Christ that results from church communion. Behind the question about the forms of concrete development of church communion, a need to clarify and ascertain the understanding of unity emerges, which has been felt ever more clearly by the member churches of the CPCE on the way from Belfast (2001) to Budapest (2006) and then to Florence (2012).”[46]

“This gives rise to two challenges. One challenge comes from the CPCE member churches themselves. The Protestant churches in Europe have recognized that they must work together more closely if they wish their testimony to be heard in the public [sphere] of Europe. In the current situation of social and political transformation, the existing church communion between member churches of the CPCE cannot be restricted simply to its core, the worshipping community in Word and Sacrament, along with continuous doctrinal discussions. New fields of work need to be opened up and networks and organisational structures to be developed and improved. The other challenge arises from the wider ecumenical movement. Other churches ask again and again about the ecumenical meaning of church communion and how the member churches of the CPCE might shape it. They have the impression that the concept of church communion is only to a limited degree suitable as [an] ecumenical model, in that it models the diversity rather than the unity of the church, and so adds to the strengthening of the status quo.”[47]

“Both these challenges persuaded the CPCE Council and the 7th General Assembly in Florence (2012) to focus on the theme of church communion as [a] topic of a doctrinal discussion.”[48]

The history of the Leuenberg Church Fellowship, from 2003 on the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe, is a history of the steady growing together of over 100 member churches. Church communion has been experienced as communion in worship, as communion in doctrine, as communion expressed in growing formal structures, and thereby as a communion of witness and service in the Europe of today.


[1] Hereafter referred to as “LA”.

[2] I will refer primarily to the doctrinal discussion text “Church Communion”, 2016. This edition has been released by the CPCE Council for obtaining feedback from the churches. The final edition, incorporating the feedback of the member churches, will be presented to the 8th General Assembly 2018 in Basle.

[3] Cf. ch. 1.1 “Church communion in the perspective of the Leuenberg Agreement (1973)”, Church Communion, §4-7, 4-5.

[4] Church Communion, §4, 4.

[5] Church Communion, §5, 4.

[6] Church Communion, §6, 4.

[7] Church Communion, §7, 4-5.

[8] LA 10c.

[9] Cf. Commission for Faith and Order, The church: Towards a common vision, § 13.

[10] Cf. ch. 1.2, Church Communion, §12-17, 5-6.

[11] Church Communion, §12, 5.

[12] Church Communion, §13, 5.

[13] Church Communion, §14, 6.

[14] Church Communion, §15, 6.

[15] Church Communion, §16, 6.

[16] Church Communion, §17, 6.

[17] Cf. ch. 1.1 “Church communion in the perspective of the Leuenberg Agreement (1973)”, Church communion, §8-11, 5.

[18] Church communion, §8, 5.

[19] Church Communion, §9, 5.

[20] Church Communion, §11, 5.

[21] Cf. ch. 1.3.1, Church Communion, §19-20, 7.

[22] Church Communion, §19, 7.

[23] Church Communion, §20, 7.

[24] Cf. ch. 1.3.2, Church Communion, §21-23, 7-8.

[25] Church Communion, §21, 7.

[26] Church Communion, §22, 7.

[27] Church Communion, §23, 8.

[28] Cf. ch. 1.3.3, Church Communion, §24-28, 8-9.

[29] Church Communion, §24, 8.

[30] Church Communion, §25, 8.

[31] Church Communion, §26, 8-9.

[32] Church Communion, §27, 9.

[33] Church Communion, §28, 9.

[34] Cf. ch. 1.3.4, Church Communion, §29-31, 9-10.

[35] Church Communion, §29, 9.

[36] Church Communion, §30, 9-10.

[37] Church Communion, §31, 10.

[38] Cf. ch. 1.4, Church Communion, §33-38, 10-12.

[39] Church Communion, §33, 10.

[40] Church Communion, §34, 10-11.

[41] Church Communion, §35, 11.

[42] Church Communion, §36, 11-12.

[43] Church Communion, §37, 12.

[44] Church Communion, §38, 12.

[45] Cf. About this text, Church Communion, §1-3, 3.

[46] Church Communion, §1, 3.

[47] Church Communion, §2, 3.

[48] Church Communion, §3, 3.

url: http://kvi.annall.is/2018-09-27/erindi-michael-bunker/


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